Dating isreali coins
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giru); 60 Babylonian shekels were one minah and 60 minah one kikkar (Babyl. In Genesis Eleazar "took a golden ring of half a shekel [beka] weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold." When Joshua conquered Jericho, Achan took booty against orders, among other things 200 shekels of silver and a "golden wedge" of 50 shekels weight (Josh. Such a "golden wedge" was discovered during the excavations of Gezer. During the period of the kingdoms of Israel and especially of Judah, payments are mentioned in the Bible in the shekel weight, the unit used to weigh the metal bars which were in those days the main means of payment.
The bulk of Hasmonean coins were of the small bronze denomination, namely the perutah or dilepton.According to but it has been proved that this grant was withdrawn before Simeon could make use of it.The series of Shenat Arba (the "Year Four") formerly assigned to him were actually issued during the Jewish War (66–70 John Hyrcanus' coins are the main pattern for the whole series of Hasmonean coins.The earliest coins found on Israeli soil are from the second half of the sixth century and the first half of the fifth century They are Greek coins from Athens, Thasos, and Macedon, brought apparently to the country by Greek merchants.In the late fifth and first half of the fourth centuries the land was under Persian rule and Phoenician coins, especially those from Sidon and Tyre, circulated in the northern part of the country and the coastal strip down to south of Jaffa.The earliest known coins originate in Lydia in northwest Anatolia in the late seventh century (i.e., before the destruction of the First Temple).
No coins of that period have yet been discovered in Ereẓ Israel.
All Hasmonean coins bear Hebrew legends, but those of Alexander *Yannai and Mattathias *Antigonus also have legends in Greek.
The Hebrew legend, written in the old Hebrew script, almost always appears in the formula, "X the high priest and the *ḥever of the Jews" (ḥever probably means the assembly of the elders of the state).
It cannot be determined whether the Jewish high priest or the local Persian governor was the issuing authority.
On one coin, however, the Hebrew name Hezekiah (Yeḥezkiyyah) can be deciphered and could be related to the high priest mentioned by Josephus (Apion, 7–9).
The largest denomination of this type which has been discovered is the drachm, but the bulk is composed of oboloi and hemi-oboloi.