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Inclusion criteria for participation included 1) age between 19–45 years, 2) no ongoing chronic pain problems, 3) no episodes of acute pain within 2 weeks prior to study participation, 4) no diagnosis of hypertension or use of medications for blood pressure, 5) no circulatory disorders, 6) no history of cardiac events, 7) no history of metabolic disease or neuropathy, 8) no current use of prescription medications, including analgesics, tranquilizers, antidepressants, or other centrally acting agents, 9) no diagnosed mental health disorders, 10) no current pregnancy, 11) no liver or kidney disease, and 12) no disorders involving the neuroendocrine system.Sessions were to be rescheduled if any participant reported use of alcohol, opioid pain medications, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the 24 hours prior to their appointment; however, this was not necessary for any participant.
This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST), while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality.
The data included in this study were collected between February 2013 and June 2014.
Potential participants were screened via telephone to determine study eligibility.
Each study participant provided self-report regarding recent depressive symptoms and sleep quality prior to completing a QST battery.
The QST battery included induced ischemia for the assessment of unidimensional pain sensitivity and CPM as a dynamic model of endogenous pain inhibition.
A noteworthy shortcoming of the previous research that specifically investigated sex differences in endogenous pain inhibition has been the lack of consideration for influential psychological and behavioral factors like depressive symptoms and sleep quality, which may have biased results.
Considering this shortcoming, the current study recruited a sample of healthy, chronic-pain-free adults equally comprising men and women.
The goal was to examine sex differences across the various QST measures, while also accounting for the relative influences of depressive symptoms and sleep quality.
It was specifically hypothesized that: 1) women would demonstrate greater ischemic pain sensitivity and less CPM compared with men, and 2) these differences between men and women would remain significant even after accounting for depressive symptoms and sleep quality.
This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality.
The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men.
This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki ethical principles for medical research.